Energy consumption and innovation-environmental degradation nexus in BRICS countries: new evidence from NARDL approach using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions

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Faculty of Economics and Commerce

Energy consumption and innovation-environmental degradation nexus in BRICS countries: new evidence from NARDL approach using carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions

In the era of rapid globalization and economic growth, the BRICS countries—comprising Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa—have risen as significant players on the global stage. This surge in economic development, however, has been accompanied by growing concerns over environmental degradation. As these nations strive to balance economic progress with ecological sustainability, it becomes imperative to explore the complex interplay between various economic indicators and environmental outcomes.

Two important environmental indicators—nitrous oxide and carbon emissions—are at the heart of this investigation. Due to their detrimental effects on climate change and air quality, these emissions have attracted attention on a global scale (Breuer et al. 2021). The BRICS nations’ economic environments have also seen significant changes, as evidenced by indicators like the GDP, ecological advancements, energy consumption, institutional performance, and trade openness.